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Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (1991 – 2008)

D.J. DePaolo Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

E.M. Stolper California Institute of Technology

D.M. Thomas University of Hawai’i at Manoa

 

Hawaii Scientific DrillingThe Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project drilled and cored two holes in Hilo, Hawaii, the deeper reaching a depth of 3520 meters below sea level, and retrieved a total of 4600 meters of rock core; 525 meters from the Mauna Loa volcano and the remainder from the Mauna Kea volcano. The Mauna Loa core extends the continuous lava stratigraphy of that volcano back to 100 ka and reveals major changes in lava geochemistry over that time period. The Mauna Kea core spans an age range from about 200 to perhaps 700 ka and when combined with surface outcrops, provides a 700 ky record of the lava output from a single volcano. During the time covered by the lavas from the core the volcano drifted some 60 to 80 km across the melting region of the Hawaiian mantle plume, and therefore the HSDP rock core provides the first systematic cross-sectional sampling of a deep mantle plume. The geochemical characterization of the core, which involved an international team of 40 scientists over a period of 15 years, provides information about mantle plume structure and ultimately about the deepest parts of the Earth’s mantle. The study of the lava core, which still continues, has provided unprecedented information about the internal structure of a large oceanic volcano and the time scale over which volcanoes grow. The hole also provides an intriguing glimpse of a complex subsurface hydrological regime that differs greatly from the generalized view of ocean island hydrology.

Hawaii Scientific Drilling1Drilling conditions were favorable in the subaerial parts of the volcanic section, where coring was fast and efficient. The submarine part of the lava section, made up primarily of volcanogenic sediments and pillow lavas, proved considerably more difficult to drill. Some of the difficulties, and considerable additional expense, were due to pressurized aquifers at depth and a few critical mistakes made while setting casing. Even with the more difficult conditions, the project retrieved about 2400 meters of nearly continuous core from the submarine section of Mauna Kea. Overall the HSDP project was highly successful, even though the original target depth was about 20% deeper than the final hole depth. The project results answer important questions about oceanic volcanoes, mantle plumes, and ocean island water resources, but raise many more that might be addressed with further moderate-depth drilling in other Hawaiian volcanoes.

Read more about this scientific core drilling services project at ICDP.

Representative References:

Abouchami, W., Hofmann, A.W., Galer, S.J.G., Frey, F.A., Eisele. J., Feigenson, M. (2005): Lead isotopes reveal bilateral asymmetry and vertical continuity in the Hawaiian mantle plume. Nature 434:851-856 (14 April 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03402.

Büttner, G., Huenges, E. (2002): The heat transfer in the region of the Mauna Kea (Hawaii) – constraints from borehole temperature measurements and coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling. Tectonophysics, 371, 23-40.

DePaolo, D.J. and Weis, D. (2007): Hotspot volcanoes and Large Igneous Provinces. In Harms, U. et al., ed. Continental Scientific Drilling: A Decade of Progress and Challenges for the Future, Springer-Verlag, 366pp

DePaolo, D.J., Stolper, E.M. and Thomas, D.M. (2007): Scientific Drilling In Hotspot Volcanoes, McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, p. 203-205

Helm-Clark, C.M., Rodgers, D.W., Smith, R.P. (2004): Borehole geophysical techniques to define stratigraphy, alteration and aquifers in basalt. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 55(1-2):3-38.

Herzberg, C. (2006): Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano. Nature 444:605-609 (30 November 2006); doi:10.1038/nature05254.

Lassiter, J.C., Hauri, E.H. (1998): Osmium-isotope variations in Hawaiian lavas: evidence for recycled lithosphere in the Hawaiian plume. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164, 483-496.

Li, X., Kind, R., Yuan, X., Wölbern, I., Hanka, W. (2004): Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume. Nature 427:827-829 (26 February 2004) doi:10.1038/nature02349.

Lassiter, J.C., (2003) Rhenium volatility in subaerial lavas: constraints from subaerial and submarine portions of the HSDP-2 Mauna Kea drillcore. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. V. 214, pp. 311-325.

Ren, Z-Y., Ingle, S., Takahashi, E., Hirano, N., Hirata, T. (2005): The chemical structure of the Hawaiian plume. Nature 436:837–840.

Ribe, N.M. (2004): Earth Science: Through Thick and Thin. Nature 427:793-795 (26 February 2004) doi:10.1038/427793a.

Sobolev, A.V. (2002): Hunting for Earth’s primary melts. Humboldt Kosmos 79/2002:19-20.

Sobolev, A.V., Hofmann, A.W., Nikogosian, I.K. (2000): Recycled oceanic crust observed in ‘ghost plagioclase’ within the source of Mauna Loa lavas. Nature 404:986-989.

Sobolev, A.V., Hofmann, A.W., Sobolev, S.V., Nikogosian, I.K. (2005): An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts. Nature 434:590-597 (31 March 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03411.

Vahle, C., Kontny, A., (2005), The use of field dependence of AC susceptibility for the interpretation of magnetic mineralogy and magnetic fabrics in the HSDP-2 basalts, Hawaii. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., V. 238, pp. 110– 129

Walton, A.W., (2008) Microtubules in basalt glass from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project #2 phase 1 core and Hilina slope, Hawaii: evidence of the occurrence and behavior of endolithic microorganisms. Geobiology, 6, 351–364

Zimmermann, G., Burkhardt, H., Englehard, L., (2005): Scale dependence of hydraulic and structural parameters in fractured rock, from borehole data (KTB and HSDP). From: HARVEY, P. K., BREWER, T. S., PEZARD, P. A. and PETROV, V. A. (eds), Petrophysical Properties of Crystalline Rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 240, 39-45

HSDP2 Papers (G-Cubed):

Althaus, T., Niedermann, S., Erzinger, J. (2001): Noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from drill core samples of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) pilot and main holes (Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, Hawaii). doi: 10.1029/2001GC000275.

Blichert-Toft, J., Weis, D., Maerschalk, C., Agranier, A., Albarède, F. (2003): Hawaiian hot spot dynamics as inferred from the Hf and Pb isotope evolution of Mauna Kea volcano. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, doi: 10.1029/2002GC000340.

Bryce, J.G., DePaolo, D.J., Lassiter, J.C. (2004): Geochemical structure of the Hawaiian plume: Sr, Nd, and Os isotopes in the 2.8 km HSDP-2 section of Mauna Kea volcano. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Vol. 6, Q09G18, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000809.

Chan, Lui-Heung, Frey, F.A. (2002): Lithium isotope geochemistry of the Hawaiian plume: Results from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project and Koolau Volcano. doi: 10.1029/2002GC000365.

Eisele, J., Abouchami, W., Galer, S.J.G., Hofmann, A.W. (2002): The 320 kyr Pb isotope evolution of Mauna Kea lavas recorded in the HSDP-2 drill core. doi: 10.1029/2002GC000339

Feigenson, M.D., Bolge, L.L., Carr, M.J., Herzberg, C.T. (2001): REE inverse modeling of HSDP2 basalts: Evidence for multiple sources in the Hawaiian plume. doi: 10.1029/2001GC000271.

Fisk, M.R., Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Douglas, S., Popa, R., McDonald, G., Di Meo-Savoie, C., (2003), Evidence of biological activity in Hawaiian subsurface basalts. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Volume 4, Number 12, 1103, doi:10.1029/2002GC000387.

Garcia, M.O., Haskins, E.H., Stolper, E.M., Baker, M., (2007), Stratigraphy of the Hawai‘i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Volume 8, Number 2, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001379

Stolper, E.M., DePaolo, D.J., Thomas, D.M. (1996): Introduction of special section: Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, B5, p. 11593-11598.

Walton, A.W. and Peter Schiffman, 2003, Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core 1. Description and paragenesis: Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, v. 4, # 5, Paper # 2002GC000368, 3I pp.

Walton, A.W., Schiffinan, Peter, and Macpherson, G.L., 2005, Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase I Drill Core 2. Mass balance of the conversion of sideromelane to palagonite and chabazite, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, v, 6, #9 Paper #2004GC00903, 27 pp.

Walton, Anthony W., 2007, Formation, modification, and preservation of microbial endolithic borings in hyaloclastite from Hawaii: Clues for petrographic recognition of mictrorbial traces in basalt glass of any provenance and stage of alteration: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII, 1975.

Walton, Anthony W., 2008, Petrographic examination of occurrence, associations, and behavior of microorganisms: Endolithic microborings in basalt glass from HSDP 2 Phase I Core, Hilo and Hilina Slope, Hawaii. Geobiology, v. 6, p. 351-364, DOl: 10.1 I I l/j.14724669.2008.00149.

Yang, H.-J., Frey, F.A., Rhodes, J.M., Garcia, M.O. (1996): Evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Inferences from Lava compositions recovered in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, B5, p. 11747-11767.

Stolper, E.M., DePaolo, D.J., Thomas, D.M. (1996): Introduction of special section: Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, B5, p. 11593-11598.

Walton, A.W. and Peter Schiffman, 2003, Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core 1. Description and paragenesis: Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, v. 4, # 5, Paper # 2002GC000368, 3I pp.

Walton, A.W., Schiffinan, Peter, and Macpherson, G.L., 2005, Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase I Drill Core 2. Mass balance of the conversion of sideromelane to palagonite and chabazite, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, v, 6, #9 Paper #2004GC00903, 27 pp.

Walton, Anthony W., 2007, Formation, modification, and preservation of microbial endolithic borings in hyaloclastite from Hawaii: Clues for petrographic recognition of mictrorbial traces in basalt glass of any provenance and stage of alteration: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII, 1975.

Walton, Anthony W., 2008, Petrographic examination of occurrence, associations, and behavior of microorganisms: Endolithic microborings in basalt glass from HSDP 2 Phase I Core, Hilo and Hilina Slope, Hawaii. Geobiology, v. 6, p. 351-364, DOl: 10.1 I I l/j.14724669.2008.00149.

Yang, H.-J., Frey, F.A., Rhodes, J.M., Garcia, M.O. (1996): Evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Inferences from Lava compositions recovered in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, B5, p. 11747-11767.